Ever since the rise of globalization and interconnectivity between nations, there has been a steady increase in the number of individuals with dual citizenship or the right to acquire citizenship in two countries. In the process of determining if obtaining dual citizenship is possible, it’s crucial to know the countries that allow dual citizenship, as an individual who may have a claim can only become a dual national if the countries in question recognize dual citizenship.

The embrace of dual citizenship is a testament to the growing global mobility and the recognition that people may have connections and ties to multiple countries, whether by birthright, the naturalization process, or through citizenship by investment programs.

While the nationality laws and eligibility for multiple citizenships vary from country to country, many countries have opened their doors to the notion of dual citizenship and granting second citizenship to foreign nationals. This enables a dual citizen to have dual or even triple citizenship status, depending on the country.

This article takes a deeper look into alternative citizenship, revealing which countries recognize dual citizenship. It will shed light on the advantages of obtaining a foreign nationality and the intricacies and experiences of those fortunate enough to hold dual citizenship status and call more than one nation their home.

From enhanced travel privileges with two passports to expanded economic opportunities through global markets, keep reading for more information on foreign citizenship and the paths to obtaining dual citizenship.

Dynamic of Dual Citizenship

hong kong citizenship of other commonwealth nations dual citizenship countries multiple citizenship dual citizenship treaties other country naturalized citizen dual nationality foreign passport dual citizenship agreements dual citizenship outright other citizenship both the united states costa rica dominican republic south korea saint lucia el salvador sri lanka us passport czech republic tax return new zealand hong kong american samoa green card department of state cape verde vatican city papua new guinea british virgin islands burkina faso south sudan global citizens us government list of countries foreign country both the united states dual citizenship allowed canadian citizens second passport permanent resident chinese citizens canadian passport bolivia dominican republic ireland hong kong american samoa department of state saint kitts nevis citizenship application central african republic hong kong new zealand guinea bissau new citizenship different laws dual national countries that allow one year non residentDual citizenship is a widely used term, but its implications and what dual citizenship means can differ based on the two countries granting citizenship.

British citizens or individuals with US or Canadian citizenship have comprehensive rights to get dual citizenship. Citizens of these countries are free to acquire a second nationality and more than one passport without the requirement to give up their existing citizenship or reporting their new legal status to the government. The only questions you should now ask are:

-Which countries accept dual citizenship with the US? (Or any country of citizenship) 

-Does my home country have a reciprocal agreement with countries that allow dual citizenship in Europe? 

On the other hand, some individuals may have to present evidence as to why they should be allowed to keep their citizenship before obtaining citizenship in other countries.  

Previously, South Africa required South African citizens to request permission from the Minister of Home Affairs to retain their South African citizenship before acquiring second citizenship. However, that was ruled unconstitutional by the country’s highest court, and citizens no longer need to file a retention of citizenship claim. 

Another instance of the limitations on dual citizenship is Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI), where alternative citizenship was exclusively granted to minors who involuntarily acquired citizenship. Modifications in the Indian Citizenship Act introduced a form of partial citizenship akin to permanent residency, as it does not include political rights such as the right to vote or run for public office.

Of the many countries that accept dual citizenship, some exclusively reserve the right to multiple citizenship for specific individuals, such as:

  • Persons who obtained citizenship by birth
  • Persons who acquired citizenship by marriage
  • Naturalized citizens
  • Citizens of former territories
  • Persons who experienced forced migration or displacement

Why do countries allow dual citizenship?

There are various reasons that can benefit both citizens and the nation. Here are some of the main reasons why countries allow citizenship in more than one country:

Economy

piggy bank multiple citizenship foreign country dual nationals other countries foreign nationality maintain dual citizenship allowed seeking dual nationality investment programs multi entry permanent visa multiple nationalities canadian citizenship foreign government allowed dual citizenship foreign passports obtain multiple nationalities dual citizenship allowed double taxation singapore citizenship malaysian citizenship foreign born parents schengen area saint vincent second passport dual nationalities mexican citizens previous nationality same income italian citizen student visa german nationality country's passport united kingdom benin dominica hold multiple nationalities irish passport mexican government national parents turkish passport multiple passports one nationality two or more countries stable country other nations permanent residence hold multiple citizenships bulgarian passport other nationalities american citizenship temporary status three countries significant advantage military service herzegovina east timor israel andorra japan marshall islands other citizenships at least one parent minimum investment minimum investment amount citizenship requirement additional citizenship other nationality security clearance offer citizenship original citizenship turkish officials many advantages second country public benefits guinea malaysia oman iberoamerican country ethnic bulgarians equal rights high net worth individuals ethnic croatians different laws automatically acquired work visa certain period several benefits travel abroad barbuda republic job opportunities many benefits easiest country live permanently verde france kyrgyzstan paraguay start counting exceptional cases double check saint vincent benefits comprehensive list green cards above list iceland morocco born uganda vanuatu many other countries process vincent and the grenadines taxes five years certain conditions principe austria india concerned national foreigner children certain number vote residents exemptDual citizens may contribute economically to their country’s government by investing, starting a local business, and creating jobs.

They can also maintain economic ties with their countries of dual nationality through real estate investment, which obliges the dual citizen to pay taxes such as property tax or tax on income generated through rental properties.

Although the United States allows US citizens to have multiple citizenship statuses, an American citizen is liable to pay taxes on worldwide income in specific circumstances.

This economic tie wouldn’t be possible if they lost their US citizenship automatically after they gained citizenship in another country. 

Family

Dual nationality facilitates family reunification, enabling dual citizens with family members with only one citizenship to obtain alternative citizenship from different countries. This allows families to stay connected, live together, and access social and political rights.

Culture

A country that permits dual citizenship establishes its recognition and celebration of its diverse cultural heritage. Through multiple nationalities, it promotes inclusivity and creates a sense of belonging for individuals with ties to other countries.

Workforce

A challenge many countries have grappled with during the past few decades of increasing globalization is the phenomenon of brain drain. Brain drain refers to the movement of skilled and talented people, like doctors, engineers, or scientists, from their country of citizenship to a foreign state. It occurs when these skilled individuals choose to leave their home country and work or live in another place, often fuelled by a lack of opportunities.

Allowing dual nationality can prevent brain drain by encouraging skilled citizens living abroad to maintain their home country’s citizenship. This helps retain talent and expertise, contributing to national development as many skilled individuals return to their home countries.

Birthright

Many countries grant citizenship either through the right of soil (jus soli) or the right of blood (jus sanguinis). If a child is born in a country that practices jus soli, they may obtain citizenship automatically, even if their parents are citizens of another country. On the other hand, jus sanguinis grants a child born in one country the right to obtain citizenship from their parents if their parents’ country adheres to this rule.

Historical

Some countries allow dual citizenship to recognize historical ties or unique relationships with particular communities or diaspora groups living abroad. This is particularly common with former territories. Although Argentina doesn’t universally allow dual citizenship, individuals with Italian or Spanish nationality can obtain and secure dual citizenship in Argentina.

Humanitarian

Countries that accept dual citizenship may provide a safe haven for stateless individuals or refugees, offering them a legal identity and access to rights and protections. While not considered dual nationality traditionally, the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness mandates that countries uphold their human rights obligations by offering legal status to stateless individuals.

Reciprocity

As a reciprocal measure, some countries may choose to allow dual citizenship, aiming to reciprocate fair treatment for their citizens living abroad.

Dual Citizenship Advantages

Dual citizens can access benefits offered by the two countries in which they hold citizenship. Benefits include voting rights, access to social privileges, and additional work opportunities. 

Travel freedom

Advanced healthcare

Business opportunities

Family benefits

Travel freedom: Only citizens of a country can obtain a passport, and dual nationality means the right to acquire two passports from separate countries, facilitating additional visa-free travel. Holding two also eliminates restrictions many countries impose on temporary and permanent residents, such as a maximum stay period outside the country or an obligation to obtain a re-entry permit.

Advanced healthcare: Holding dual nationality allows individuals to access the best health offered by their respective countries of citizenship. Furthermore, each country may have specific areas in which they excel regarding healthcare.

Business opportunities: Dual-citizen entrepreneurs can easily open new sales channels and access new business and investment opportunities. Dual citizens can develop professionally and expand their investment portfolios without needing a work or self-employment visa permitting them to conduct business in another country.

Future benefits for family: Holding dual nationality means you can sponsor your family members to obtain citizenship by descent. In many countries, children born to dual-citizen parents automatically obtain citizenship from their parents. Moreover, the inheritance of ancestral citizenship can span across multiple generations. For example, individuals can be eligible to obtain Polish citizenship through their great-grandparents.

Dual Citizenship Disadvantages

While dual nationality offers numerous advantages, it is essential to acknowledge that it may also entail certain drawbacks.

The complex process of obtaining citizenship: Acquiring a second citizenship may involve significant expenses and considerable time investment in collecting and processing the required documentation, particularly for ancestral citizenship.

Double taxation: Unless the two countries of citizenship have a double tax agreement, multiple nationality may come with an increased tax burden. For example, the United States obliges US citizens with double nationality to pay taxes, even if they have permanent resident status in another country.

Dual obligations: Citizenship has varying responsibilities from one country to the other, with a significant one being mandatory national service. Individuals with Brazilian, Singaporean, or Chinese citizenship must adhere to their country’s enlistment laws once they reach a specified maturity age.

Inheritance complications: The complexity of inheritance laws in different countries can significantly affect dual citizens. When a dual citizen possesses assets or property in two countries, it can lead to estate planning and succession complications. Each country may have its own rules and regulations regarding inheritance, including tax implications, distribution of assets, and procedures for probate.

Dual Citizenship by Country

Many countries comprehensively recognize dual citizenship, while others permit it only in particular circumstances or for specific individuals. Here is a list of the countries that allow dual citizenship.

Please note that the list is not exhaustive.

Country 

Allow Dual Citizenship 

Conditions or Exceptions 

Zimbabwe 

Yes 

Dual nationality allowed only for citizens by birthright. 

Zambia 

Yes 

 

Yemen 

Yes 

Dual citizenship requires prior permission. 

Vietnam 

Yes 

 

Venezuela 

Yes 

 

Vatican City 

Yes 

 

Vanuatu 

Yes 

 

Uzbekistan 

No 

 

Uruguay 

Yes 

 

United States 

Yes 

 

United Kingdom 

Yes 

 

United Arab Emirates 

No 

 

Ukraine 

No 

 

Uganda 

Yes 

Tuvalu 

N/A 

Turkmenistan 

No 

 

Turkey 

Yes 

Tunisia 

Yes 

 

Trinidad and Tobago 

Yes 

Allows dual citizenship only for citizens of Trinidad and Tobago by birthright. 

Tonga 

Yes 

 

Togo 

No 

 

Tibet 

Yes 

 

The Gambia 

Yes 

 

Thailand 

Yes 

 

Tanzania 

No 

Allows dual citizenship until 18 years old. 

Tajikistan 

Yes 

Dual nationals will only be considered citizens of Tajikistan. 

Taiwan 

Yes 

 

Syria 

Yes 

Switzerland 

Yes 

 

Sweden 

Yes 

 

Suriname 

No 

 

Sudan 

Yes 

 

St. Vincent and the Grenadines 

Yes 

 

St. Lucia 

Yes 

 

St. Kitts and Nevis 

Yes 

 

Sri Lanka 

Yes 

An Application for Retention must be submitted to be eligible for dual citizenship. 

Spain 

Yes 

Dual citizenship allowed for citizens of Latin American countries, Andorra, the Philippines, Equatorial Guinea, or Portugal, or for Spanish citizens by birthright their second citizenship within three years of acquiring it. 

South Sudan 

Yes 

 

South Korea 

Yes 

 

South Africa 

Yes 

Dual citizenship is allowed only if the South African Minister of Home Affairs grants permission. 

Somalia 

Yes 

 

Solomon Islands 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until 18 years old. 

Slovenia 

Yes 

Allows dual citizenship for citizens by birth or descent. 

Slovakia 

No 

 

Singapore 

No 

 

Sierra Leone 

Yes 

 

Seychelles 

Yes 

 

Serbia 

Yes 

 

Senegal 

N/A 

Scotland 

Yes 

Saudi Arabia 

No 

 

Sao Tome and Principe 

No 

 

San Marino 

No 

 

Samoa 

Yes 

 

Rwanda 

No 

 

Russia 

Yes 

 

Romania 

Yes 

 

Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) 

Yes 

 

Qatar 

No 

 

Portugal 

Yes 

 

Poland 

Yes 

 

Philippines 

No 

 

Peru 

Yes 

 

Paraguay 

Yes 

Dual citizenship allowed for citizens by birth or ancestry where an international treaty exists. 

Papua New Guinea 

Yes 

Panama 

Yes 

 

Palestine 

N/A 

 

Palau 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until 21 years old. 

Pakistan 

Yes 

Allows dual citizenship only if a bilateral treaty exists with the other country. 

Oman 

No 

 

Norway 

No 

Allows dual citizenship if original nationality cannot be relinquished. 

North Macedonia 

Yes 

 

North Macedonia 

Yes 

 

North Korea 

No 

Niger 

Yes 

 

Nigeria 

Yes 

Allows dual citizenship for Nigerian citizens by birthright. 

Nicaragua 

Yes 

 

New Zealand 

Yes 

 

Netherlands 

No 

Permits dual citizenship if you were born in a foreign country and obtained citizenship at birth, or lived there as a minor, or if you acquired your spouse’s nationality automatically. 

Nepal 

No 

Nauru 

Yes 

Namibia 

Yes 

 

Myanmar, Burma 

No 

Mozambique 

Yes 

Morocco 

Yes 

 

Montenegro 

No 

Allows dual citizenship only if a bilateral treaty exists with the other country. 

Mongolia 

No 

 

Monaco 

No 

 

Moldova 

Yes 

Micronesia 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until 18 years old. 

Mexico 

Yes 

 

Mauritius 

Yes 

 

Mauritania 

No 

 

Marshal Islands 

Yes 

Malta 

Yes 

 

Mali 

Yes 

 

Maldives 

No 

Malaysia 

No 

 

Malawi 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until 22 years old. 

Madagascar 

No 

 

Macau 

Yes 

 

Luxembourg 

Yes 

 

Lithuania 

Yes 

Permits dual citizenship only in certain circumstances. 

Liechtenstein 

No 

 

Libya 

No 

 

Liberia 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until the age of maturity. 

Lesotho 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until 21 years old. 

Lebanon 

Yes 

 

Latvia 

Yes 

 

Laos 

No 

 

Kyrgyzstan 

Yes 

 

Kuwait 

No 

 

Kosovo 

Yes 

 

Kiribati 

No 

 

Kenya 

Yes 

 

Kazakhstan 

No 

 

Jordan 

Yes 

 

Japan 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until 21 years old. 

Jamaica 

Yes 

 

Ivory Coast 

Yes 

 

Italy 

Yes 

 

Israel 

Yes 

 

Ireland 

Yes 

 

Iraq 

Yes 

 

Iran 

No 

 

Indonesia 

No 

 

India 

No 

Dual citizenship allowed for minor Indian citizens by birthright. Adult Indian citizens can acquire a second citizenship; however, they'll be considered an "overseas citizen" restricting their Indian citizenship rights. 

Iceland 

Yes 

 

Hungary 

Yes 

 

Hong Kong 

Yes 

 

Honduras 

Yes 

Allows dual citizenship if a treaty exists with that country. 

Haiti 

Yes 

 

Guyana 

No 

Guinea 

N/A 

Guinea-Bissau 

Yes 

Permits dual citizenship if emigration was motivated by economic factors. 

Guatemala 

Yes 

Grenada 

Yes 

Greece 

Yes 

Ghana 

Yes 

 

Germany 

Yes 

Must apply for a citizenship retention permit to keep German citizenship before applying for second citizenship. 

Georgia 

No 

Allowed only when a foreign president grants citizenship based on exceptional merit. 

Gabon 

N/A 

 

France 

Yes 

 

Finland 

Yes 

 

Fiji 

Yes 

 

Ethiopia 

No 

 

Eswatini 

No 

 

Estonia 

No 

 

Eritrea 

No 

 

Equatorial Guinea 

Yes 

 

El Salvador 

Yes 

 

Egypt 

Yes 

 

Ecuador 

Yes 

 

East Timor 

Yes 

 

Dominica 

Yes 

 

Dominican Republic 

Yes 

 

Djibouti 

Yes 

 

Denmark 

Yes 

 

Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until 21 years old. 

Czech Republic 

Yes 

 

Cyprus 

Yes 

 

Cuba 

No 

 

Croatia 

Yes 

 

Costa Rica 

Yes 

 

Comoros 

Yes 

 

Colombia 

Yes 

 

China 

No 

 

Chile 

Yes 

 

Chad 

N/A 

 

Central African Republic 

Yes 

 

Cape Verde 

Yes 

 

Canada 

Yes 

 

Cameroon 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until 21 years old. 

Cambodia 

Yes 

Burundi 

Yes 

 

Burkina Faso 

Yes 

 

Bulgaria 

Yes 

 

Brunei Darussalam 

No 

Dual citizenship permitted until 18 years old. 

British Virgin Islands 

Yes 

 

Brazil 

Yes 

Botswana 

No 

Dual citizenship allowed until 21 years age. 

Bosnia and Herzegovina 

Yes 

Permits dual citizenship if there is a bilateral agreement between the two states. 

Bolivia 

Yes 

Bhutan 

No 

Benin 

Yes 

Belize 

Yes 

Belgium 

Yes 

 

Belarus 

No 

 

Barbados 

Yes 

 

Bangladesh 

No 

Bangladeshi nationals and their children with foreign citizenship must apply for a Dual Nationality Certificate. 

Bahrain 

No 

 

Bahamas 

No 

 

Azerbaijan 

No 

Austria 

No 

Individuals who gain dual nationality at birth can keep both citizenships. Dual citizenship is permitted for individuals eligible for Austrian citizenship by investment. 

Australia 

Yes 

 

Armenia 

Yes 

Argentina 

Yes 

Citizens of reciprocal countries can obtain dual citizenship in Argentina 

Antigua and Barbuda 

Yes 

 

Angola 

Yes 

Andorra 

No 

Citizens of Spain are permitted dual citizenship 

American Samoa 

Yes 

Algeria 

Yes 

Albania 

Yes 

Afghanistan 

No 

A former citizen of Afghanistan who was displaced due to political instability or war and acquired new citizenship may hold “unofficial” Afghan citizenship. 

Dual citizenship in EU countries: Many European nations accept dual citizenship, and countries like the United Kingdom and France have some of the most diverse ranges of dual citizens worldwide. The few European countries that don’t permit dual citizenship include Estonia, the Netherlands, and Austria. However, these are also among the EU countries that allow dual citizenship under specific circumstances.

Dual citizenship in Africa: African nations are relatively divided in their acceptance of multiple nationality. While many don’t recognize multiple citizenship, African nations that allow dual citizenship include Angola, Benin, Burundi, Morocco, South Africa and Sierra Leone. 

Dual citizenship in South America: Besides a few countries, South American countries almost universally acknowledge dual citizenship. Of other countries in the Americas, several Caribbean countries allow dual citizenship by investment, including St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and St. Lucia. 

How Can Global Citizen Solutions Help You?

Global Citizen Solutions is a boutique migration consultancy firm with years of experience delivering bespoke residence and citizenship by investment solutions for international families. With offices worldwide and an experienced, hands-on team, we have helped hundreds of clients worldwide acquire citizenship, residence visas, or homes while diversifying their portfolios with robust investments. 

We guide you from start to finish, taking you beyond your citizenship or residency by investment application. 

Frequently Asked Questions about Dual Citizenship

Can a US citizen have multiple citizenships?

US citizens can legally hold citizenship for more than one country. The United States recognizes dual citizenship, meaning an individual can be both a US citizen and a citizen of another country while holding two or more passports. 

Does dual citizenship affect US citizenship?

Dual citizenship does not impact US citizenship status, as the United States permits dual citizenship. It is also possible to have permanent residency without applying for a second citizenship. 

How do I acquire dual citizenship?

Whether or not you can acquire citizenship in a different country through ancestry depends on the dual citizenship laws of the host country and your ancestral history. Italian citizenship by descent has no generational limits, meaning individuals with Italian ancestry are eligible for dual citizenship, provided their ancestral line remains unbroken.

Which countries disallow dual citizenship?

There are a few countries that do not allow dual citizenship. Here is a list of countries that do not grant dual citizenship:

  • Bahrain
  • Malaysia
  • Qatar
  • Singapore

The UK allows dual citizenship?

The UK is one of several dual-citizenship countries with no restrictions on the number of nationalities British citizens can hold next to their British citizenship.

Which Asian countries allow dual citizenship?

Compared to global standards, Asian countries are pretty restrictive in their stance on dual citizenship. However, Asian nations that allow dual citizenship include Thailand, Cambodia, and South Korea. Muslim countries that approve of dual citizenship include Turkey and Lebanon.

Japan doesn't allow dual citizenship?

Japan is not among the countries that permit dual citizenship, as the Japanese government has previously expressed no national interest in allowing dual or multiple citizenships. Japan continues to prioritize a strong sense of national identity and citizen loyalty. The Japanese government aims to promote a cohesive and unified society by enforcing a single citizenship rule.

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