Spain’s world-class beaches, mouth-watering cuisine, rich culture, and high living standards are attractive enough prospects for relocation. Much like other nations have adopted the Golden Visa, Spain also offers foreign investors and their families an opportunity to secure residency in Spain in exchange for a qualifying economic contribution.
Thanks to the Spain Golden Visa program, global citizens who are not part of the European Union (EU), European Economic Area (EEA), or Switzerland can financially invest in the country and be granted a Spanish residence permit.
In this ultimate guide, we aim to provide you with practical and up-to-date information on the procedure of the Spain Golden Visa. Read on to discover the top benefits of the Golden Visa in Spain, the requirements, the application process, and more.
Spain Golden Visa: Brief Overview
The Spanish Golden Visa was launched in 2013 as part of the national strategy to boost the Spanish economy and increase foreign investment. Also known as the Investor Visa, the Spain Golden Visa program is that offers investors the opportunity to obtain residency in Spain in exchange for a significant capital investment.
Please note that the Spanish Golden Visa is not a direct route to obtain Spanish citizenship. However, after acquiring a Spain Golden Visa and spending ten years as a Spanish resident, you could be eligible for citizenship after ten years.
The Spanish Investor Visa program grants qualifying individuals a renewable, temporary residence permit in exchange for an investment in the country. Individuals can either purchase real estate, invest in Spanish companies, invest in funds or bank deposits, create employment opportunities, or make a qualifying contribution to government bonds.
Reasons to Apply for the Spanish Golden Visa
Similar to Portugal’s Golden Visa and to other Europe Golden Visas, the Spain Investor Visa program has proven particularly popular among applicants from China, Russia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Brazil, and India. As of 2021, 13,000 Spain Golden Visas have been approved, according to the Ministry of Inclusion, Social Security and Migration (Ministerio de Inclusión, Seguridad Social y Migraciones).
What’s behind the popularity of the Spanish Golden Visa? Well, a key advantage of the Spanish Golden Visa is that the government legislation does not impose a minimum period of residence. To qualify for the Golden Visa for Spain and get a residence permit, applicants must invest at least €500,000 in Spanish real estate, at least €1 million in shares of Spanish companies, invest €1 million on a bank deposit or investment fund, or € 2 million in Spanish treasury bonds.
Upon the Golden Visa approval, an initial Spanish residence permit is granted for one year or two years if you visit Spain. This temporary residence permit can then be renewed every five years. You can obtain permanent residency after you’ve been domiciled in the country for five years. Please note that applicants will be required to visit Spain to submit their biometric data.
In order to apply for Spanish citizenship by investment, Golden Visa holders with a temporary residence permit must live in Spain for ten years (minimum 183 days per year). The person can’t be absent from the country for more than six months continuously in these ten years. For nationals of former Spanish colonies, the stay requirement is that they have to live in Spain for two years and can’t be absent from the country for more than three months per year.
Top benefits of the Spain Golden Visa Program
While there are plenty of Golden Visa Programs across Europe, the application process for the Spanish Golden Visa is one of the easiest, known for its speed and clarity. Applicants who successfully acquire the Golden Visa in Spain can enjoy key Golden Visa benefits, among other advantages.
Here are some of the key benefits of the Spanish Golden Visa:
- Visa-free travel throughout the Schengen Area: Since Spain is an EU member state and part of the Schengen Area, obtaining the Spain Golden Visa means you can travel visa-free to all 26 countries constituting the Schengen zone.
- Create a “safe haven” by moving to Spain: Having a ‘plan B’ puts your mind at ease in times of economic or political instability or global crisis.
- The right to work and do business in Spain: Obtaining a Spanish residence visa means you can live, work, and do business in Spain.
- Family residency plans: Your spouse and children under the age of 18 are guaranteed residence permits through the Spanish Golden Visa. Other family members can also obtain residency, provided paperwork is presented showing they are your legal dependents.
- Access to an EU standard of education and healthcare: As a Spanish Golden Visa holder, you and your family gain the right to high-quality education and healthcare in Spain.
- Easy renewal: The Spanish Golden Visa residence permit is easily renewable if the conditions for the granting of the right are still met.
- Fast processing time: After submitting the Spain Golden Visa application, the legal period for reaching a decision is ten days. This period may be extended when an interview or additional documents are requested (this is applicable to the one-year visa). The residence permit takes about 30 days to be approved.
- EU citizenship eligibility after ten years of permanent residency: The Spain Golden Visa is renewable, and provided that the minimum investment is maintained, EU citizenship is possible after ten years of permanent residency.
Gain Spanish citizenship and passport
The Spanish Golden Visa program has proven to be one of the most popular residency and citizenship by investment programs in Europe. Obtaining a Spain citizenship by investment and a Spanish passport is an ultimate dream for many individuals as, according to the Global Passport Index, it allows them access to the world at large with visa-free travel or visa-on-arrival access to 173 countries. Spanish passport holders are also granted the right to study, work, and live in any EU member state.
Citizenship in Spain can be obtained by means of naturalization after ten years of maintaining their residence permit. To succeed in their citizenship applications, applicants must show proof that they have resided in Spain for at least six months every year throughout that period. Once applicants have either permanent residency or citizenship, they are free to disband their investment, as further Spain Golden Visa renewals are not required.
Eligibility Criteria for the Golden Visa Spain
Any non-EU, non-EEA, or non-Swiss citizen with a clean criminal record and who makes a qualifying financial investment in the Spanish economy is eligible for a residence permit under the investment immigration program, along with their immediate and dependent family members.
If you and your family decide to live in Spain, you become eligible for permanent residency after five years. However, you have to provide documents proving that you spent more than 183 days per year in the country.
Golden Visa Spain Requirements
The general Spanish Golden Visa requirements are:
- The primary applicant must be over 18 years of age
- The primary applicant must make a significant investment as stipulated by the Spanish government and provide proof of the respective financial investment.
- Applicants must possess a clean criminal record
- Applicants must not be on the nation’s list of undesirable people
- Applicants must have valid medical insurance coverage and an official health certificate
- Applicants must not have previously been refused visas or entry into the Schengen zone
- Applicants must have sufficient funds to sustain themselves and their family members while they reside in Spain
Which family members qualify for the Golden Visa in Spain?
You are able to include your immediate family members in your application for the Golden Visa in Spain, including certain dependents. Those who can qualify are:
- Your spouse or domestic partner if together for over two years
- Your children under the age of 18
- Adult children (over 18 years old) or parents who are economically dependent – on the condition that you present financial proof that they are dependent or have a health condition that makes them unable to provide for themselves
Spain Golden Visa Program Investment Options
The Spain investment visa scheme provides flexible investment options to qualifying investors, such as in real estate or capital shares. Most applicants choose the Spanish real estate investment option under the Spanish Golden Visa since it provides easy access to the European Union and gives investors and their families a residential home in the Mediterranean to enjoy.
Below are the investment options under the Spanish Golden Visa Scheme. Regardless of your preferred route, do note that you must maintain your investment for a minimum period of five years in order to keep your residence permit.
Spain Golden Visa Program Investment Options
Spanish public debt securities
Stocks, shares, or bank deposits
• Property investment: Purchase commercial and/or residential real estate in Spain with a minimum value of €500,000
• Spanish public debt securities: Invest at least €2 million in public debt securities
• Stocks, shares, or bank deposits: Invest at least €1 million in stocks or shares of companies operating in Spain, in Spanish investment funds, venture capital funds, or in bank deposits in Spanish financial institutions
• Business investment: Invest at least €1 million in starting a business in Spain that generates employment, contributes to technological and/or scientific innovation, and has a strong socio-economic impact
Spain Golden Visa Program: tax considerations
There are a few taxes you might want to consider when applying for the Golden Visa in Spain, and they are as follows:
- Foreign income tax: Investors will be taxed on their worldwide income if they reside in Spain for over 183 days in any year.
- Personal Income Tax (PIT): Non-residents are subject to a 24 percent tax on income accrued from employment or business conducted in Spain.
- Capital gains tax: Capital gains arising from transfers of assets are included in savings income and are taxed at the corresponding progressive tax rates of between 19% and 28%.
- Interest income: Interest and other income generated from transferring a person’s own capital to third parties are included in PIT savings income and taxed at a 19% tax rate up to the first €6,000 of income, a 21% tax rate for the following €6,000 to €50,000 of income, a 23% tax rate for the following €50,000 to €200,000, a 27% tax rate for the following €200,000 to €300,000, and a 28% tax rate on any remaining income.
- Property Tax: Individuals are required to pay an annual property tax between 0.4 percent and 1.3 percent, depending on their property type and location.
Required Documents for the Golden Visa in Spain
The following documents must be submitted by Spain Golden Visa applicants for both the initial application and each renewal. Additional documents also may be required. Check with your nearest Spanish Embassy or Consulate for further clarification.
Spain Golden Visa Program required documents:
- Your completed application form
- Original and a copy of your valid passport, with two blank pages for the visa. Please note that passports issued for over ten years are not accepted.
- A recent passport-size, colored photograph with a white background. The photo must be taken from the front, without dark glasses, reflections, or clothing/hair that hides the face.
- Original and copy of valid medical insurance: Public health insurance or private health insurance contracted with an insurance company licensed to operate in Spain
- Original and photocopy of a medical certificate with an original translation and photocopy of translation if required. This document must be issued no more than 90 days before your appointment date, and must include letterhead and original signature and/or stamp from a doctor (only M.D. or D.O’s will be accepted).
- Criminal Record Certificate, which must be apostilled/legalized and sworn translated into Spanish. Applicants of legal age must submit both the original and a copy of the criminal record check certificate(s) issued by the country where they lived for more than six months for the last two years. A responsible declaration of the absence of criminal record in the country/ies the applicant lived for more than six months in the past year is also mandatory to present.
- Proof of payment of the visa fee, which must be paid in the local currency (Euros). Please note that the fee is subject to regular changes due to currency fluctuations.
- Proof of lawful residence in the consular district where the applicant is residing
- Proof of the legal representative’s identity and capacity in cases where the application is submitted through one. An original and a copy of their identity document or passport has to be provided, as well as proof of their power of attorney or any document accrediting their representation.
- The primary applicant must prove to have the amount of 400% IPREM – Indicador Público de Renta de Efectos Múltiples. For 2023, it corresponds to €2.400,00 per month. Plus €600,00 per month per dependent.
- The applicant must provide a certificate of bank account balance to prove sufficient funds for the expenses of at least two years in Spain. This certificate can be issued by a bank outside of Spain in a foreign currency. It can’t be a bank statement; it must be a letter from the bank with the confirmation of the balance.
Documents required for applicant family members:
1. The general documents 1-7 apply to family members.
2. A marriage certificate has to be provided if your spouse applies with you for Spain’s Golden Visa. If your country of origin is not the United Arab Emirates, the certificate must be legalized by the Spanish Consulate in the country of issuance. If the certificate is in a language other than English or Spanish, it must be officially translated into Spanish or English, and the translation must be certified by the Spanish Consulate in the country of issuance. For this purpose, this document is valid for six months, counting from its issue date.
3. If children apply, birth certificates are to be provided along with the same certification requirements or another document proving their dependency (it can be an economic dependency only). There might be additional documents, depending on the dependent’s specific case.
Documents required for real estate buyers:
- Proof of purchase showing that the property has been purchased at least 90 days before your visa application is submitted.
- Property Registry Filing certificate or notarized deeds proving that the real estate deeds have been submitted to the Property Registry.
Documents required for capital investors:
- Golden Visas under the capital investment route require a substantial investment worth at least €2 million in Spanish bonds, or at least €1 million in the acquisition of shares of Spanish companies, or bank deposits worth at least €1 million in Spanish banks. Proof of those payments has to be provided by the main applicant.
- Proof that the investment has been made no more than 60 days before the application is submitted.
- Proof that the investments are justified:
i. In the case of the acquisition of non-publicly traded company shares, present a certificate issued by the Registry of Foreign Investments of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Registro de Inversiones Exteriores del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad).
ii. In the case of the acquisition of publicly traded companies, present a certificate of a registered broker.
iii. In the case of the acquisition of Spanish bonds, a certificate of the bank transfer or of the Bank of Spain accrediting the investment for a period of at least five years.
iv. In the case of bank deposits, a bank certificate showing proof of the deposit.
Legalizing Golden Visa documents
Any document issued by a government authority needs to be legalized with the Apostille of the Hague in order to be used in the Golden Visa application.
These documents include but are not limited to:
- Criminal record background checks
- Marriage certificates
- Birth certificates
Your document must be Apostilled through the country or state where it was issued. In the United States, for example, the Secretary of State of each state can issue an Apostille. Once your background check is Apostilled, you should have a two-page document. The first page will be the Apostille, and the second will be the official letter from your background check. Do not detach the documents for any reason.
Translating Golden Visa documents
All Golden Visa documents and certificates not originally in Spanish must be translated by a Sworn Spanish translator certified by the Government of Spain. A translation is not needed if the document is available in English or Spanish.
Opening a Spanish bank account and obtaining an NIE number
The NIE (Número de Identificación de Extranjero) is a Spanish identification and tax number given to foreigners. It is used for many legal or official activities in Spain, from filing tax returns to purchasing real estate. An NIE number is required when conducting fiscal transactions involving the Spanish tax office. Therefore, obtaining an NIE number as soon as possible will make life easier in Spain.
Non-EU citizens typically receive their application for an NIE with their Spanish residency permit. You can expect to be required to present a Spanish NIE in these circumstances:
- Opening bank accounts
- Signing an employee contract
- Filing tax returns
- Buying or selling real estate
- Renting property
- Automotive purchase and sale
- Becoming self-employed
- Incorporating a business
- Inheritance arrangements
- Registering as a foreign student
- Applying for a Spanish driver’s license
- Arranging basic utilities
Spain Golden Visa Application Process
After completing the minimum investment requirement, you will receive a multiple-entry initial Golden Visa, which is valid for one year. Within that year, you must go to Spain in person to apply for the three-year initial residence permit on the condition that your investment is still in place. While you and/or your family members do not need to live in Spain to maintain your residency visa permit, you must visit Spain to renew it.
The person can apply for a Schengen Visa and then go to Spain to apply for the residence permit or apply directly for the investor Visa (1 year Visa).
Note that due to legislative changes in recent years, nationals from a select few countries can qualify for Spain’s speedy citizenship process, namely applicants from Ibero-American countries and former Spanish colonies. The fast-track option is over two short years (730 days) and mandates its own minimum stay requirements that must be met.
These residency requirements include the need to reside in Spain legally for two years and not be absent from the country for more than three consecutive months.
Countries that enjoy fast-track to citizenship privileges include:
Keep in mind that your application for the Golden Visa can be made in your name or through an EU company fully owned by you. You can get in touch with our specialists at Global Citizen Solutions for more information on how we can take care of the whole application process for you.
Spain Golden Visa Application: Step-by-Step Guide
1. Decide on an investment
2. Make the investment
3. Open bank account/NIE
4. Prepare documents
5. Book an interview
6. Fill out the application
7. Issuance of Golden Visa
8. Attend the biometric collection in Spain
9. Issuance of the residence card
10. Citizenship application
01. Decide on your Golden Vis investment route:
Choose whether you want to invest in real estate property or make a capital investment.
02. Make the qualifying financial investment:
With a Lawyer’s assistance, complete the investment following all the legal requirements, such as obtaining an NIE and opening an account with a Spanish bank.
03. Open a Spanish bank account and NIE:
A bank account and NIE (Foreigner’s Identification Number/tax identification number) make conducting business and personal affairs easier in Spain.
04. Prepare your documents:
i. Property Registry Filing certificate or notarized deeds and proof that the deeds have been submitted to the Property Registry.
ii. All other required documents, as stated further down in this guide.
iii. Have all documentation translated into Spanish and legalized according to the Spanish government’s standards.
05. Book your interview
06. File the initial application with the Spanish Consulate:
You will need to pay the government application fee and provide all the required documentation.
07. Issuance of the Spanish Golden Visa:
i. The 1-year visa will be stamped on your valid passport, allowing you to live, work, and study in Spain and travel throughout the Schengen for one year. After this, you will need to apply for the Golden Visa Residence Permit, which can be done online (with the Lawyer’s assistance) or in person.
ii. If you are already in Spain with a Schengen Visa, you can apply directly for the residence permit. In this case, apply for the residence permit, then you have to book an appointment for the collection of the biometrics and wait for the issuance of the T.I.E (tarjeta de identidad de extranjero), which is the residence card.
08. Attend a biometric collections session in Spain:
i. Wait for the final approval
ii. Upon approval of your Golden Visa, pay the government permit issue fee.
09. Issuance of the residence card:
Your residence permit will be issued, and it will be valid for three years.
i. The residence permit is renewable for periods of 5 years thereafter.
ii. Become a permanent resident in year five
10. Apply for citizenship:
After ten years of residence, you will be entitled to apply for Spanish citizenship, whereby you can get a Spanish passport.
Spanish Golden Visa Processing Time
- The Client chooses the best investment option suited to their needs
- The client completes the investment
- Preparation and submission of an application for the Spanish Golden Visa
- Travel to Spain for the biometrics appointment (fingerprints and photos)
Residence card issuance
- The client applies online for the temporary residence permit (TIE). The UGE has 30 days to respond
- Book biometrics appointment (when the client is in Spain)
- TIE is issued and ready for pick-up. The card must be collected by the client
Right before the three-year residency permit expires, go to Spain and renew your application.
Apply for citizenship
The citizenship application may be submitted after ten years of residency.
Spanish Golden Visa: Government Fees
The Spanish government charges specific fees concerning the Golden Visa. The Spanish Golden Visa fee payment is compulsory and has to be made at the same time when submitting a visa application. The Golden Visa fee has to be paid in local currency, and it is subject to regular changes due to currency fluctuations.
Spain Golden Visa fees for 2024
Application through the Consulate (for the one-year Visa)
The Spanish Golden Visa fee is 80€. For nationals of Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom, different rates are applied for reasons of reciprocity. In these cases, the amount of the fee must be consulted with the Consular Office.
UGE application (for the 3-year residence permit)
First application: €73,26 per applicant
Renewal of the residence permit: €78,67
€16,08- First card
€19,30EUR – Renewal of the card
NOTE: these fees are updated annually
Why choose Global Citizen Solutions for your Golden Visa Application?
Frequently Asked Questions about the Spanish Golden Visa
What is Spain’s Golden Visa program?
The Spain Golden Visa program is a residency by investment program established by the Spanish government in 2013. The program is geared toward non-EU investors who want to make either capital or real estate investments in Spain in exchange for a temporary residency permit.
Qualified applicants and their immediate family are issued an initial residency visa that can be renewed every few years and acts as a pathway to permanent residency and Spanish citizenship.
How long do Spain Golden Visas last?
It is a two-step process. First, you must meet Spain’s immigrant investor program’s requirements in order to obtain the visa, which a Spanish Consulate or Embassy issues. It permits you to travel to Spain with multiple entries and exits for one year. Within this year, you are required to go to Spain and apply for your residency permit in person, and the residence permit is valid for three years.
How long is the residency permit valid?
The first residency permit you obtain is valid for three years. After these three years, you can renew it. This renewal is valid for five years. You can continue renewing it every five years as long as you own properties in Spain. You do not have to reside in Spain in order to be allowed to renew your residency permit, which is one of the Spanish Golden Visa benefits.
If you want permanent residency or citizenship, you must live in Spain for at least five years to acquire permanent residence or ten years if you would like to obtain a Spanish Golden Passport Spain.
Can I apply for Spanish citizenship with a Golden Visa?
The Spain Golden Visa program is seen as a window of opportunity for citizenship. When you make a qualifying investment in Spain and submit your application successfully, the government grants you a renewable residence permit.
Once you take the right steps and abide by the program’s investment and stay requirements, you become eligible for citizenship, usually after ten years of residency.
Can I fast-track to Spanish citizenship?
Certain nationals from Ibero-American countries and former Spanish colonies may be eligible to fast-track the route to citizenship in Spain. In just two years, you can obtain an EU passport. Conditions include fulfilling the minimum stay requirement, which is continuous living in Spain for two years and not being absent from Spain for more than three months. You must also pass a language exam. Please note that nationals of Latin American countries are exempt from proving the language requirement.
Can I work in Spain with a Golden Visa?
The Golden Visa authorizes the holder to work and live in Spain.
When does the Golden Visa start counting?
From the day that the Spain Golden Visa is issued, it is valid for one year. The residence permit (TIE) is valid for three years.
What does a financial guarantee mean for the Golden Visa requirement?
Each applicant must show proof of enough income or savings to live in Spain. You can also show proof of your savings with a considerable balance of funds in your account as opposed to showing your monthly income statement
What is the cost of the Spain Golden Visa to get citizenship?
The Spain Golden Visa cost depends on what investment option you select. For the Spain real estate visa option, you will need to purchase real estate with a minimum value of €500,000. You can invest in more than one property, whether commercial or residential.
Another option would be to make a bank deposit of at least €1 million or invest €1 million in shares of Spanish businesses. You can also contribute €2 million in public debt securities.
How can I get permanent residence in Spain?
In order to be granted permanent residence in Spain, the applicant must have lived legally and effectively in Spain for five years. This means that the individual must not be abroad for over six consecutive months and must not exceed a total of ten months of absence from Spain during the respective years.
Do you get residency if you buy property in Spain?
You are entitled to apply for Spanish residency if you make a real estate purchase of at least €500,000 and fulfill the requirements.
What are my Spain Golden Visa property options?
You are not limited to purchasing one property or type of property. You are qualified for residency as long as the real estate investment meets or exceeds €500,000. Note that you can either opt for residential or commercial property or a combination of both.
The properties involved may be leased. Different buyers can also combine their investments into one property, and any amount exceeding the minimum investment may be mortgaged.
Can I buy a mix of properties individually and with bank loans?
As long as you invest €500,000 of your own funds, the rest can be financed by a bank of your choosing. E.g., if you buy a property for €1 million, you can invest €500,000 from your own funds and get a mortgage for the remaining €500,000.
Can I get a Spanish passport?
Provided that you fulfill the government’s criteria of residing in Spain for ten years and follow all the legal steps to acquire Spanish nationality, you may be eligible for a Spanish passport.
How long can you live in Spain with a Golden Visa?
You can choose to reside indefinitely in Spain with a Golden Visa. In fact, if you reside there for ten years, you’ll become eligible for an EU passport, which means you’ll no longer require a passport or have to submit a Schengen visa application to visit EU countries in the Schengen Area.
Does Spain have a Golden Visa?
Spain has a Golden Visa program that grants foreign investors residency rights in exchange for a significant investment in the country’s economy.
What does a Spanish Golden Visa give you?
The Spanish Golden Visa is a Spanish visa that gives you full residency rights in Spain and access to the Schengen Area and other EU countries. It enables you to live and work in Spain, access the country’s national healthcare system, and more.
Who qualifies for the Golden Visa in Spain?
To qualify for the Golden Visa in Spain you must:
- Be over 18 years of age
- Be a non-EU, non-EEA, and non-Swiss national
- Make a significant investment as stipulated by the Spanish government
- Have a clean criminal record
- Be on the nation’s list of undesirable people
- Have valid medical insurance coverage and an official health certificate
- Have not previously been refused visas or entry into the Schengen zone
- Have sufficient funds to sustain themselves and their family while they reside in Spain
Is the Golden Visa in Spain worth it?
Considered one of the most successful investment programs in Europe, the Spanish Golden Visa offers applicants an array of advantages. Some of the program’s key benefits include the opportunity to make profitable investments in Spain, EU residency, visa-free travel in Europe, and a pathway to Spanish citizenship.
Is Spain getting rid of the Golden Visa?
Currently, the Spanish Golden Visa is still active and open for applications.
What are the disadvantages of the Golden Visa in Spain?
One of the biggest drawbacks of the Golden Visa in Spain is the cost. The visa has minimum investment requirements, which can be substantial for some people.
How much does it cost to get a Golden Visa in Spain?
The minimum investment of €500,000 is the main cost of the Spanish Golden Visa. Apart from that, there’s also the Golden Visa fee, which is 80€. For nationals of Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom, different rates are applied for reasons of reciprocity.
What are Golden Visa schemes?
Golden visa schemes are programs offered by various countries, granting residency or citizenship to foreign investors in exchange for substantial investment in the host country’s economy.
How much money do you need to get a Golden Visa in Spain?
The minimum investment of €500,000 is the main cost of the Spanish Golden Visa. Apart from that, there’s also the Golden Visa fee, which is 80€.
Is there a Spain Golden Visa for US citizens?
Yes, the Spain Golden Visa is available for US citizens. This residency by investment program offers foreigners temporary residency in Spain in return for an investment. After five years, it is possible to gain permanent residency and after ten years, Spain citizenship.