The Russian passport is a key biometric document issued for Russian nationals. Russian passports provided visa-free travel to 128 countries. This guide provides in-depth information on passports issued by the Russian Federation.

Key Facts about the Russian Passport

Global ranking

Russia’s passport ranks 91st out of 199 on our Global Passport Index, assessing visa requirements (i.e., travel benefits for passport holders), economic opportunities, and the quality of life in the country.

Passport types

A regular Russian passport is a red passport with a unique passport number issued to ordinary citizens by the Russian Federation:

  • Regular: Issued to Russian citizens aged 18 and over
  • Child’s passports: Issued to Russian citizens between 14 and 17
  • Child’s passports: Issued to Russian citizens aged 13 and under
  • Diplomatic passports: Issued to representatives of the Russian Federation and their family members on diplomatic missions. The passport has ten-year validity.
  • Service passports: Issued to Russian civil servants and military persona in the Russian army l on overseas missions. The passport has ten-year validity.

A Certificate of Return is a Russian travel document issued by Russian Consulates General or Embassies to citizens Returning to Russia in urgent circumstances.

Benefits of Russian Passports

Russia offers a range of benefits to Russian citizens or Russia passport holders. Here are a few key advantages:

• Travel visa-free: One of the significant advantages of being Russian passport holders is the ability to travel visa-free countries. Russian citizens with Russian Federation passports have access to a wide range of destinations without the need for a visa or with visa-on-arrival privileges.

This includes countries like Belarus, Brazil, Cuba, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey, Venezuela, and many others where you can travel visa-free. The list of visa-free countries may vary, so staying updated with the latest information from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or the Russian Consulate is crucial.

• Access to Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU): Russian passport holders can enjoy enhanced mobility within the Eurasian Economic Union member countries and travel visa-free. This includes Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The EAEU allows more accessible travel, work, study, and business opportunities within these nations.

• Consular protection and assistance: Holding Russian internal passports can grant you access to consular protection and assistance from any Russian Embassy or Consulate worldwide, even when you choose to travel to visa-free countries or visa-required nations.

In emergencies, lost passports, or legal issues abroad, you can seek assistance and guidance from Russian diplomatic missions. This ensures that Russian passport holders have support and representation when they travel to visa-free countries, visa-on-arrival nations, or any foreign countries and territories.

• National identity and cultural connection: The Russian biometric passports represent more than a travel passport. It symbolizes your connection to Russia’s rich history, culture, and traditions. Holding Russian internal passports can allow you to proudly identify as a citizen of Russia, fostering a sense of national pride and belonging.

• Ease of international travel and business: For individuals engaged in international business, Russian passports offer advantages such as streamlined processes, easier access to business visas, and increased credibility while conducting business transactions abroad, especially when you travel to visa-free countries. It facilitates smoother interactions with potential partners, clients, and investors.

• Educational and employment opportunities: A Russian biometric passport can open doors to many academic and employment opportunities worldwide. It allows access to study abroad programs, scholarships, and employment opportunities in various visa-free countries and other countries. A valid Russian passport can enhance your international career growth and personal development prospects.

• Cultural exchange and travel experiences: With Russian biometric passports, you can immerse yourself in different cultures, explore new destinations, and enrich your travel experiences when you exit Russia to travel to visa-free countries or other countries. Whether exploring historical landmarks, indulging in local cuisines, or participating in cultural festivals, the Russian biometric passports offer the freedom to broaden your horizons and create lifelong memories.

Global Visa Requirements for Russian Passport Holders

As a Russian citizen, you can visit nations on every continent visa-free, with a visa-on-arrival, or with an eTA (Electronic Travel Authorization).

Let’s take a closer look at the countries accessible to Russian citizens.

CountryRussian Federation
Afghanistanvisa required
Algeriavisa required
Andorravisa required
Angolavisa free (30 days)
Antigua and Barbudavisa free (90 days)
Argentinavisa free (90 days)
Armeniavisa free (180 days)
Austriavisa required
Azerbaijanvisa free (90 days)
Bahamasvisa free (90 days)
Bahrainvisa on arrival
Bangladeshvisa on arrival
Barbadosvisa free (90 days)
Belarusvisa free
Belgiumvisa required
Belizevisa required
Bolivia, Plurinational State ofvisa free (90 days)
Bosnia and Herzegovinavisa free (30 days)
Botswanavisa free (90 days)
Brazilvisa free (90 days)
Brunei Darussalamvisa free (14 days)
Bulgariavisa required
Burkina Fasoe-visa
Burundivisa on arrival
Cambodiavisa on arrival
Canadavisa required
Cabo Verdevisa free (60 days)
Central African Republicvisa required
Chadvisa required
Chilevisa free (90 days)
Chinavisa required
Colombiavisa free (90 days)
Comorosvisa on arrival
Congovisa required
Congo, The Democratic Republic of thee-visa
Costa Ricavisa free (30 days)
Côte d'Ivoiree-visa
Croatiavisa required
Cubavisa free (90 days)
Cyprusvisa required
Czechiavisa required
Denmarkvisa required
Dominicavisa free (21 days)
Dominican Republicvisa free
Ecuadorvisa free (90 days)
Egyptvisa on arrival
El Salvadorvisa free (90 days)
Equatorial Guineae-visa
Eritreavisa required
Estoniavisa required
Eswatinivisa free (30 days)
Ethiopiavisa on arrival
Fijivisa free (120 days)
Finlandvisa required
Francevisa required
Gabonvisa free (30 days)
Gambiavisa free (90 days)
Georgiavisa free (360 days)
Germanyvisa required
Ghanavisa on arrival
Greecevisa required
Grenadavisa free (90 days)
Guatemalavisa free (90 days)
Guinea-Bissauvisa on arrival
Guyanavisa free (90 days)
Haitivisa free (90 days)
Hondurasvisa free (90 days)
Hong Kongvisa free (14 days)
Hungaryvisa required
Icelandvisa required
Indonesiavisa on arrival
Iran, Islamic Republic ofe-visa
Iraqvisa on arrival
Irelandvisa required
Israelvisa free (90 days)
Italyvisa required
Jamaicavisa free (90 days)
Japanvisa required
Jordanvisa on arrival
Kazakhstanvisa free (90 days)
Kiribativisa free (90 days)
Kuwaitvisa required
Kyrgyzstanvisa free
Lao People's Democratic Republicvisa free (30 days)
Latviavisa required
Lebanonvisa on arrival
Liberiavisa required
Libyavisa required
Liechtensteinvisa required
Lithuaniavisa required
Luxembourgvisa required
Macaovisa free (30 days)
Madagascarvisa on arrival
Malaysiavisa free (30 days)
Maldivesvisa free (90 days)
Malivisa required
Maltavisa required
Marshall Islandsvisa on arrival
Mauritaniavisa on arrival
Mauritiusvisa free (90 days)
Micronesia, Federated States ofvisa free (30 days)
Moldova, Republic ofvisa free (90 days)
Monacovisa required
Mongoliavisa free (30 days)
Montenegrovisa free (30 days)
Moroccovisa free (90 days)
Mozambiquevisa free (30 days)
Myanmarvisa free (30 days)
Namibiavisa free (90 days)
Nauruvisa on arrival
Nepalvisa on arrival
Netherlandsvisa required
New Zealandvisa required
Nicaraguavisa free (90 days)
Nigervisa required
Korea, Democratic People's Republic ofvisa required
North Macedoniavisa required
Norwayvisa required
Omanvisa on arrival
Palauvisa free (30 days)
Palestine, State ofvisa free
Panamavisa free (90 days)
Papua New Guineae-visa
Paraguayvisa free (90 days)
Peruvisa free (180 days)
Philippinesvisa free (30 days)
Polandvisa required
Portugalvisa required
Qatarvisa on arrival
Romaniavisa required
Rwandavisa on arrival
Saint Kitts and Nevisvisa free (90 days)
Saint Luciavisa free (42 days)
Samoavisa free (90 days)
San Marinovisa required
Sao Tome and Principevisa free (15 days)
Saudi Arabiavisa on arrival
Senegalvisa on arrival
Serbiavisa free (30 days)
Seychellesvisa free (90 days)
Sierra Leonevisa on arrival
Slovakiavisa required
Sloveniavisa required
Solomon Islandsvisa required
Somaliavisa on arrival
South Africavisa free (90 days)
Korea, Republic ofe-visa
South Sudane-visa
Spainvisa required
Sri Lankae-visa
Saint Vincent and the Grenadinesvisa free (90 days)
Sudanvisa required
Surinamevisa required
Swedenvisa required
Switzerlandvisa required
Syrian Arab Republicvisa required
Taiwan, Province of Chinavisa required
Tajikistanvisa free
Tanzania, United Republic ofvisa on arrival
Thailandvisa free (30 days)
Timor-Lestevisa on arrival
Togovisa on arrival
Tongavisa on arrival
Trinidad and Tobagovisa free (90 days)
Tunisiavisa free (90 days)
Turkmenistanvisa required
Tuvaluvisa on arrival
Turkeyvisa free (60 days)
Ukrainevisa required
United Arab Emiratesvisa free (90 days)
United Kingdomvisa required
United Statesvisa required
Uruguayvisa free (90 days)
Uzbekistanvisa free
Vanuatuvisa free (90 days)
Holy See (Vatican City State)visa required
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofvisa free (90 days)
Viet Namvisa free (45 days)
Yemenvisa required
Zambiavisa on arrival
Zimbabwevisa on arrival

Costs of Russian Passport

Acquiring Russian biometric passports incurs certain costs that applicants should be aware of. While the exact fees may vary based on factors such as passport type and processing speed, understanding the general expenses involved is crucial.

The Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs is the government agency responsible for issuing Russia passports and residency permits. The five-year passport application fee is around $25, while a long-term passport of ten years can be around $56.

It is essential to remember that the cost of receiving a Russian passport can change over time, so verifying the current fees and charges through official sources or consulting the local passport office is advisable. Being aware of the associated costs of the Russian visas will help applicants budget accordingly and ensure a smooth application process.

Requirements for Russian Passport

Most Russians receive citizenship at birth through a combination of citizenship by birth and descent. There are several alternatives for foreign nationals to acquire citizenship based on naturalization.

Russia citizenship by birth

If you were born in Russia to parents who are Russian citizens or permanent residents, you are automatically granted Russian citizenship at birth.

Russia citizenship by descent

If you were born abroad to a parent who was born in Russia, you’re eligible for Russian citizenship by descent.

Russia citizenship by naturalization (common process)

Russian citizenship by naturalization is available to holders of a permanent residence permit who have lived in Russia for at least five years. The requirements include proficiency in the Russian language and knowledge of Russian history, culture, and its Constitution. You must also have a stable source of income to support yourself and your family.

Russia citizenship by naturalization (simplified process)

If you meet specific criteria, you may be eligible for the simplified naturalization process to obtain Russian citizenship. This process is available to foreign citizens who meet one of the following criteria:

  • Have served in the Russian military
  • Have made a significant contribution to the Russian economy, culture, or science
  • Are recognized as native speakers of Russian

The simplified naturalization requirements are less stringent than those of the common process. The minimum residency period is reduced to three years, and there is no requirement to prove proficiency in Russian. A Russian international treaty with specific countries grants eligibility to their citizens for simplified citizenship, including citizens of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

Restoration of citizenship for former Russian citizens

If you previously had a Russian nationality and gave up your previous citizenship, you may be able to restore your citizenship. To be eligible, you must meet the following criteria:

  • Had voluntarily given up your Russian nationality
  • Be fluent in the Russian language
  • Have knowledge of Russian history, culture, and the Constitution
  • Have not committed any crimes that would disqualify you from obtaining citizenship

Applying for a Russian Passport

Applicants must fulfill specific requirements set by the Federal Migration Service (FMS) when applying for a Russian internal passport to ensure a smooth and successful application process. These requirements include providing the necessary Russian documents related to citizenship or residence permit, meeting specific criteria, and adhering to guidelines set by the Russian authorities. Here are the essential requirements to keep in mind before you start your journey to the long list of visa-free countries with a Russian Federation passport:

Application form: Complete the internal passport application form accurately and legibly. The application form can be obtained from the local passport office in major cities or downloaded from the official website of the Russian authorities. If applicable, fill in all the required information, including personal details, contact information, and travel history.

Proof of citizenship: Provide documents to prove your Russia citizenship. This typically involves providing your birth certificate, Russian internal passport (if applicable), or other valid supporting documents as required by the authorities. The documents needed may vary depending on individual circumstances, so it is advisable to consult the local passport office or official sources for the exact requirements.

Russian Passport Photo Requirements

One crucial aspect of the application process is meeting the specific photo requirements set by the Russian authorities. Here are some essential guidelines to follow for internal passport photos:

  • Size: The standard size for Russian internal passport photos is 35 mm x 45 mm (1.38 inches x 1.77 inches).
  • Background: The background should be light-colored, preferably white or light gray, with no patterns or shadows.
  • Facial expression: Maintain a neutral facial expression with both eyes open and looking directly at the camera. Avoid smiling, frowning, or any exaggerated expressions.
  • Clothing: Wear everyday attire that does not cover the face or obscure facial features. Avoid hats, headgear, or accessories that might obstruct the face.
  • Lighting: Ensure the photo has even lighting, with no harsh shadows or reflections. The face should be well-illuminated and clearly visible.
  • Print quality: The photos should be high-quality, sharp, and well-focused, with good contrast and color representation. They should not be digitally altered or manipulated in any way.

Having the passport photos taken by a professional photographer familiar with the specific requirements is advisable. Many photo studios and printing services are aware of the Russia passport photo guidelines and can provide suitable photos that comply with the official standards.

Meeting the passport photo requirements is crucial, as any deviation from the guidelines may result in rejection or delay the application. By following these guidelines and ensuring that your photos meet the specified criteria, you can avoid unnecessary complications and increase your chances of a successful passport application.

Unlock global opportunities with our citizenship by investment programs

Learn More Arrow Icon

How to Get a Russia Passport

Applying for a new passport in Russia involves several steps that future Russian passport holders must follow to ensure a smooth and successful application. Here is a general overview of the application process:

Gather the required documents: Collect all the necessary papers for your passport application in Russia. These typically include your completed application form, proof of Russia citizenship (such as a birth certificate or internal passport), and any other documents based on your circumstances. Verifying the specific document requirements with the local passport office in Russia or official government sources is essential.

Submit the application:

  1. Take your completed application form and supporting papers to the nearest passport office in Russia or the designated passport acceptance center.
  2. Present your records to the authorized personnel, who will review and verify them.
  3. Pay any applicable fees or state duty charges at this stage. The personnel will provide you with a receipt or acknowledgment of your application.

Biometric passport data collection: As part of the application process, you will need to provide your biometric data, including fingerprints and a digital photo. The passport office in Russia or the acceptance center will guide you through capturing this information. Ensuring that your biometric data is accurately recorded is crucial, as it will be used for identity verification and passport issuance.

Application processing: Once your application and supporting records have been submitted, they will undergo a thorough review and processing by the passport authorities in Russia. This may involve verification of your citizenship in Russia, background checks, and other necessary procedures. The processing time can vary depending on factors such as the workload of the passport office and the type of passport being applied for.

Passport issuance: Once your application has been processed and approved, you will be notified of the passport issue date to collect your passport. The passport office in Russia will provide instructions on when and where to collect your passport. Ensure to bring the necessary identification and any additional copies as specified by the authorities. Upon receiving your passport on the issue date, carefully review the details to ensure accuracy. And there you are, one of the many holders of Russian passports

Passport delivery (optional): In some cases, you may request delivery of your passport to a specified address in Russia. This service may involve additional fees. If you choose this option, provide the required information and payment details during the application process.

It is important to note that the Russia travel passport application process and specific requirements may vary depending on individual circumstances, such as the type of passport being applied for (e.g., regular, diplomatic, or service passport) and the applicant’s age.

Therefore, it is crucial to visit the official website of the Russia passport authority, contact the local passport office in Russia, or seek guidance from authorized embassy personnel to obtain the most accurate and up-to-date information pertaining to your specific situation.

Russian Passport Processing Time

plan b for your family's futureThe timeline for issuing a Russia passport varies from one month to four months. However, it is essential to note that the processing times for passports greatly depend on other factors, such as the age of the applicant, the type of passport applied for, residence permits, and many other factors. Aspects such as peak seasons, public holidays in Russia, and individual circumstances can impact the timeline, too.

The following is a general timeline to give you an idea of the overall process:

Application submission: You will typically receive an acknowledgment receipt after submitting your passport application and required papers at the passport office in Russia or the acceptance center. This confirms that your application has been received and is under review. The duration for this step can vary, but it usually takes a few days to a week.

Application processing: Once your application is in the processing stage, the passport authorities will review your papers, conduct necessary background checks, and verify your eligibility. The processing time for a Russian passport can range from very short notice of several weeks to a few months, depending on the workload of the passport office and the complexity of your application.

Biometric data collection: As part of the application process, you will be required to provide your biometric data, including fingerprints and a digital photo. This step is typically done during the application submission or at a designated biometric data collection center. The data collection process itself is usually quick and can be completed within a matter of minutes.

Passport issuance: Once your application has been processed and approved, you will be notified to collect your passport. The time it takes for the passport to be issued can vary, but it is generally within several weeks to a few months from the date of application. The passport office will provide instructions on when and where to collect your passport.

Renewal of Russia Passport for Russian Citizens

Renewing valid passports involves specific steps that Russian passport holders must follow to ensure a smooth and efficient renewal process. Here is a general overview of the renewal process:

Eligibility for renewal: Check the expiration date of your current Russia passport to determine if it is eligible for renewal. Typically, holders of Russian passports can initiate renewal up to six months before the expiration date. It is important to note that some passport offices may have specific requirements or limitations regarding the renewal process, so it is advisable to consult the official website of the Russian authorities or contact the local passport office for the most accurate information.

Gather the required documents: Collect the necessary documents for the Russian passport renewal process. These typically include:

  • Current/expired Russia passport
  • Completed passport renewal application form
  • Original internal passport
  • Police report for a lost or stolen passport (if applicable)
  • Four photos

And any additional documents as required by Russian officials. The specific document requirements may vary based on local residents and individual circumstances, so it is advisable to consult the local passport office or official sources for the exact requirements.

Submit the renewal application:

  1. Take your completed Russian passport renewal application form and the necessary documents to the nearest passport office or the designated passport acceptance center.
  2. Present your documents to the authorized personnel, who will review and verify them.
  3. Pay any applicable fees or state duty charges at this stage. The personnel will provide you with a receipt or acknowledgment of your renewal application.

Passport renewal processing: Once your renewal application and supporting documents have been submitted, they will undergo a thorough review and processing by the passport authorities. This may involve verification of your identity and the information provided in the application. The processing time can vary depending on factors such as the workload of the passport office and the type of renewal being processed.

Passport renewal issuance: Once your renewal application has been processed and approved, you will be notified to collect your renewed passport. The passport office will instruct you when and where to collect your renewed passport. Ensure to bring the necessary identification and any additional documents as specified by the authorities. Upon receiving your renewed passport, carefully review the details to ensure accuracy.

Dual Citizenship in Russia

The Russian government generally does not recognize or allow Dual citizenship in Russia. Russian law stipulates that individuals acquiring foreign citizenship may lose their Russian citizenship. However, there are some exceptions for formally occupied territories of Russia; certain countries, namely Turkmenistan and Tajikistan, have special agreements with Russia that allow citizens to hold dual citizenship and travel documents of two countries.

Additionally, Russians who acquired citizenship in other countries before the adoption of relevant laws in 2002 may still maintain dual citizenship. Individuals considering Russian dual citizenship should consult Russian immigration authorities to ensure any decisions align with the Russia citizenship law.

How Can Global Citizen Solutions Help You?

Global Citizen Solutions is a boutique migration consultancy firm with years of experience delivering bespoke residence and citizenship by investment solutions for international families. With offices worldwide and an experienced, hands-on team, we have helped hundreds of clients worldwide acquire citizenship, residence visas, or homes while diversifying their portfolios with robust investments. 

We guide you from start to finish, taking you beyond your citizenship or residency by investment application. 

Explore our Golden Visa programs: a path to residency and citizenship

Learn More Arrow Icon

Ukrainian and Russian Passports

As one of Russia’s former occupied territories, the relationship between Ukrainian authorities and Russia has been complex, particularly in the context of geopolitical events. The situation involves issues such as the annexation of Crimea (Southern Ukraine) by President Vladimir Putin in 2014 and Russia’s full-scale invasion of eastern Ukraine in February 2022.

Regarding passports, it’s essential to note that Russia recognizes passports issued by the self-proclaimed Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR) and Luhansk People’s Republic (LPR) in eastern Ukraine. These entities declared independence following the invasion of Ukraine by Russian troops in 2014. As of today, Russian-controlled territory includes Zaporizhzhia and Kherson, which were annexed by Russian President, Vladimir Putin in September 2022. Occupied territories by Russian troops include South Ossetia, a region of Georgia bordering Russia.

President Vladimir Putin introduced a new law allowing Ukrainian children and adults living in illegally occupied territories to renounce their Ukrainian citizenship for Russia citizenship. The European Commission has declared the invasion of Ukrainian territory and illegal occupation as a war crime, and these passports are not internationally recognized. Ukrainian authorities also consider them illegal.

The hardships faced by local residents in occupied areas and the destruction of local communities have prompted an outpouring of humanitarian aid from international organizations, non-governmental agencies, and concerned nations. Recognizing the urgent need for assistance, these entities have mobilized resources to provide essential relief to the local population.

The broader issue of passports and citizenship has been a sensitive topic in the context of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. It’s crucial to consult the latest news and official sources for the most up-to-date information on the situation between Russia and Ukraine and any developments related to passports and citizenship. Please note that political and diplomatic situations can change, impacting the dynamics between countries.

Is it worth having a Russia passport?

Whether having a Russian passport is worth it depends on personal circumstances and priorities. A Russian passport grants access to travel to Russia without a visa and allows the holder to benefit from certain privileges within the country, including permanent residency without a residence or special permit. It also provides proximity to several regions, including Eastern Europe and the European Union on the west and Asia on the east.

However, it’s crucial to consider factors such as the geopolitical climate, visa requirements for other countries, and personal ties to Russia. A Russian passport can be a valuable travel document if an individual has significant connections, family, or business interests in Russia.

On the other hand, obtaining and maintaining Russian passports may involve navigating complex legal processes, and foreigners should weigh the benefits against potential challenges. Ultimately, the decision to pursue a Russian passport depends on the specific needs and preferences.

Frequently Asked Questions about Russian Passport

What visa-free countries and territories can you visit with a Russian passport?

Russian passport holders can enjoy travel to visa-free countries or visa-on-arrival access to numerous nations, including most nations in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many destinations in South America, and several countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa.

However, the specific requirements for visa-free and visa-on-arrival countries may vary, and it is advisable to check with the embassy or consulate of the destination country for the most up-to-date information on the required visa.

How long are Russian passports valid?

Regular Russian passports are generally valid for a period of ten years for adult Russians and five years for children under the age of 14. However, there may be exceptions or different validity periods for certain types of passports issued, such as diplomatic or service passports. It is crucial to check the expiration date on your passport and renew it in a timely manner before it expires.

How long does it take to get a Russian passport?

The processing time for getting a Russian passport can vary. It typically takes several weeks to a few months for the application to be processed, depending on factors such as the workload of the passport office and individual circumstances. It is essential to plan ahead and submit the application well in advance to avoid any inconvenience or delays.

How hard is it to get a Russian passport?

Getting a Russian passport can be straightforward if foreigners meet the requirements and provide the required documents for registration. While there are specific criteria to fulfill, the difficulty level may vary based on individual circumstances such as age and type of passport applied to and compliance with the guidelines. It is recommended to gather accurate information, consult official sources, and follow the prescribed procedures to increase the chances of a successful application.

Is a Russian passport biometric?

The Russian Federation issues both ordinary and biometric Russian passports. The chip embedded in Russian passports employs Basic Access Control (BAC) technology to safeguard data stored within it. Read data is generated only upon inputting the passport number, the holder’s date of birth, and the passport expiration date, typically found within the machine-readable zone.

Does Russia have a strong passport?

Russia’s passport ranks 91st out of 199 countries on the Global Passport Index. This places it squarely in the middle of the overall global passport rankings.

How To Get A Portuguese Passport in 2024
More Info arrow icon
Spanish Passport: How to get one and What the Requirement...
More Info arrow icon
The Requirements to Gain an Italian Passport
More Info arrow icon
Everything You Need to Know about the Malta Passport
More Info arrow icon